Defensive installations on the site of the castle was first built in the XI century. In the XIII century Grodno became part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and from 1391, the castle was the main residence of the Duke Vytautas, who in 1398 instead of a wooden castle built a stone Gothic castle with five towers. This building is largely preserved to this day.
In 1445 Grand Duke of Lithuania Casimir IV Jagiellonian received Polish ambassador here, to offer him the crown, and in 1492 died in the castle. King of Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Stefan Batory often stayed here, he actually made the Grodno the unofficial capital of Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. At the initiative of the king about 1580, the castle was rebuilt in Renaissance style.
From 1678, the castle was held every third Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Sejm. At the beginning of the XVIII century, during the war the castle was burned and never had a former values.